鋼鐵產業是國民經濟建設的基礎性行業，鋼鐵產業的合理布局有助於區域經濟合理、有序發展。改革開放之後，我國進入經濟高速增長期，每年需要數億噸鋼材作為經濟發展的支持，為鋼鐵產業提供了巨大的市場，鋼鐵工業實現了跨越式發展，鋼鐵企業數量呈現 井噴式增長。彼時，鋼鐵產業投產即意味著盈利。因此，在過去九折型材鋼鐵行業高速發展的若幹年內，這個資金規模巨大，短期內就能提高稅收、提高就業的重工業產業， 曾經是各地方政府產業承接與吸收轉移的“座上賓”。
Iron and steel industry is the basic industry of national economic construction. The rational distribution of iron and steel industry contributes to the rational and orderly development of regional economy. After the reform and opening up, China has entered a period of rapid economic growth, which requires hundreds of millions of tons of steel each year as the support of economic development, providing a huge market for the iron and steel industry. The iron and steel industry has achieved leapfrog development, and the number of iron and steel enterprises has shown blowout growth. At that time, the commissioning of the steel industry meant profit. Therefore, in the past several years of rapid development of the iron and steel industry, this heavy industry, which has a huge scale of funds and can increase tax revenue and employment in a short time, was once the "guest" of local government industries to undertake and absorb and transfer.
From the point of view of industrial distribution, industrial transfer should be an effective way to optimize the spatial distribution of productive forces and form a rational industrial division system. Generally speaking, the spatial distribution of industries is represented by the transfer of industries from developed areas to developing areas. In our country, most of them are from coastal developed areas to inland areas, and from east to west. Trend is the main trend.
在 過去鋼鐵產業的轉移和承接的過程中，成功的案例很多，但也湧現出諸多問題。比如，一些地方隻看重“硬實力”的重工業產業，盲目的追求一時的經濟增長，沒有 客觀的把握和分析轉移方的需求和自身的承接能力，沒有能夠準確甄別和選擇適合本地的目標產業。一些地方在產業轉移和承接的過程中，缺乏與周邊地區的分工協 調，單純的從本地區的意願和需求出發，造成區域鋼鐵產業重複布點，與周邊形成過度競爭和同質化競爭。還有一些地方缺乏對產業的關聯度和帶動能力的設計，承 接鋼鐵產業之後隻見鋼鐵生產，沒有形成相關上下遊原料產業和工業生產的線性帶動，產業鏈條難以形成閉環。
In the past, there were many successful cases in the process of transfer and acceptance of iron and steel industry, but many problems also emerged. For example, some places only focus on "hard power" heavy industry, blindly pursue temporary economic growth, do not objectively grasp and analyze the needs of the transferors and their own ability to undertake, and fail to accurately identify and select the target industries suitable for the local. In the process of industrial transfer and acceptance, some places lack of coordination with the division of labor in the surrounding areas. Starting from the willingness and demand of the region, they cause the repeated distribution of regional iron and steel industry, and form excessive competition and homogeneous competition with the surrounding areas. Others lack the design of the correlation degree and driving capacity of the industry. After undertaking the iron and steel industry, only iron and steel production is seen. There is no linear driving force of the related upstream and downstream raw material industry and industrial production. It is difficult to form a closed-loop industrial chain.
典型的範例就是2010年-2015年的新疆地區，隨著西部大開發的火熱推進，寶鋼八一鋼鐵、新興鑄管在內的多家鋼廠在新疆陸續開始大規模投產。據統計，新疆的粗鋼產能從 2010 年的 1010 萬噸迅速擴張至 2015 年的 2530 萬噸，鋼鐵企業一度有140 家之多。產能的大幅擴張導致供給增速和需求增速產生了嚴重不匹配，產能利用率反而開始出現大幅下跌。新疆的粗鋼產能利用率從 2010 年的 80%下降至 2013 年的 50%，低的時候僅為29%，鋼鐵產能從欠缺到過剩，新疆幾乎隻用了五年時間。低水平重複建設的產業結構在“盛宴”過後變成“一地雞毛”。而諸如這樣的例子，在當時不在少數。
The most typical example is Xinjiang from 2010 to 2015. With the development of the western region, Baosteel Bayi Iron and Steel Co., Ltd. and Xinxing Cast Pipe Co., Ltd. began to put into operation on a large scale in Xinjiang. According to statistics, Xinjiang's crude steel production can expand rapidly from 10.1 million tons in 2010 to 25.3 million tons in 2015, and there were 140 iron and steel enterprises at one time. The large expansion of capacity led to a serious mismatch between supply growth and demand growth, and the utilization rate of capacity began to fall sharply. The utilization rate of crude steel production capacity in Xinjiang has decreased from 80% in 2010 to 50% in 2013, and the lowest is only 29%. It takes almost five years for Xinjiang to reduce its steel production capacity from deficiency to excess. After the feast, the low-level duplicate industrial structure has become a feather in one place. Such examples were not rare at that time.
Recently, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology issued the announcement on the Guidance Catalogue of Industrial Transfer (2018 edition), of which 19 provinces and municipalities involved in the adjustment of the iron and steel industry. Among them, Beijing, Liaoning, Shanghai, Shandong, Shanxi, Henan, Qinghai, Xinjiang and Hainan will no longer undertake steel-making and iron-making industries (see Table 1). In Beichen District of Tianjin, Zhangjiakou City of Hebei Province, Langfang City, Taihu District of Jiangsu Province and Dongguan City of Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, the relevant steel and iron-making capacity of 9 cities will gradually lead to withdrawal (see Table 2). This means that for the iron and steel industry, the reform of supply level will further rise to the change of industrial layout, and the layout of China's iron and steel industry will enter a new stage of great change and adjustment in the future.